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1940 Peace Treaty

Treaty of Peace Between the Republic of Finland and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

March 12, 1940

The government of the Republic of Finland on the one hand and The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the other hand.

Desiring to put to an end the hostilities which have arisen between the two countries and to create lasting peaceful relations between them, and being convinced that the creation of precise conditions for reciprocal security, including the security of the cities of Leningrad and Murmansk and of the Murmansk Railway, corresponds to the interest of both contracting parties.
Have to this end found it necessary to conclude a peace treaty and have...agreed upon the following:

Article I
Hostilities between Finland and the USSR shall cease immediately in accordance with procedure laid down in protocol appended to this treaty.

Article II
The national frontier between the Republic of Finland and the USSR shall run along a new line in such fashion that there shall be included in the territory of the USSR, the entire Karelian Isthmus with the city of Viipuri and Viipuri Bay with its islands, the western and northern shores of Lake Ladoga with the cities of Kexholm and Sortavala and the town of Suojarvi, a number of islands in the Gulf Of Finland, the area east of Markajarvi with the town of Kuolajarvi, and part of the Rybachi and Sredni peninsulas, all in accordance with the map appended to this treaty.

A more detailed determination and establishment of the frontier line shall be carried out by a mixed commission made up of representatives of the contacting powers, which commission shall be named within ten days from the date of the signing of this treaty.

Article III
Both contracting parties undertake to refrain from any attack upon the other and make no alliance and to participate in no coalition directed against either of the contracting parties.

Article IV
The Republic of Finland agrees to lease to the Soviet Union for 30 years, against an annual rental of eight million Finnish marks to be paid by the Soviet Union, Hanko Cape and the waters surrounding it in a radius of five miles to the south and east and three miles to the north and west, and also the several islands falling within that area, in accordance with the map appended to this treaty, for the establishment of a naval base capable of defending the mouth of the Gulf of Finland against attack; in addition to which, for the purpose of protecting the naval base, the Soviet Union is granted the right of maintaining there at its own expense the necessary number of armed land and air forces.

Within ten days from the date this treaty enters into effect, the government of Finland shall withdraw all its military forces from Hanko Cape, which together with its adjoining islands shall be transferred to the jurisdiction of the USSR in accordance with this article of the treaty.

Article V
The USSR undertakes to withdraw its troops for the Petsamo area which the Soviet state voluntarily cede to Finland under the peace treaty of 1920.

Finland undertakes, as provided in the peace treaty of 1920, to refrain from maintain in the waters running along its coast of the Arctic Ocean warships and other armed ships, excluding armed ships of less than 100 tons displacement, which Finland shall be entitled to maintain without restriction, and also at most 15 warships or other armed ships, the displacement of none of which shall exceed four hundred tons.

Finland undertakes, as was provided in the same treaty, not to maintain in the said waters any submarines or armed aircraft.
Finland similarly undertakes , as was provided in the same treaty, not to establish on that coast military ports, naval bases, or naval repair shops of greater capacity than is necessary for the above-mentioned ships and their armaments.

Article VI
As provided in the treaty of 1920, the Soviet Union and its citizens are granted the right of free transit across the Petsamo area to Norway and back, in addition to which the Soviet Union is granted the right to establish a consulate in the Petsamo area.

Merchandise shipped through the Petsamo area from the Soviet Union to Norway, and likewise merchandise shipped through the same area from Norway to the Soviet Union, is exempted from inspection and control, with the exception of such control as is necessary for the regulation of transit traffic; neither customs duties nor transit or other charges shall be assessed.

The above mentioned control of transit merchandise shall be permitted only in the form usual in such cases in accordance with established practice in international communications.
Citizens of the Soviet Union who travel through the Petsamo area to Norway and from Norway back to the Soviet Union shall be entitled to free transit passage of the basis of passports issued by the appropriate officials of the Soviet Union.
Observing general directives in effect, unarmed Soviet aircraft shall be entitled to maintain air service between the Soviet Union and Norway in the Petsamo area.

Article VII
The government of Finland grants to the Soviet Union the right of transit for good between the Soviet Union and Sweden, and, with a view to developing this traffic along the shortest railway route, the Soviet Union and Finland consider it necessary to build, each upon its own territory and in so far as possible in the year 1940, a railway which shall connect Kantalahti
(Kandalaksha) and Kemijarvi.

Article VIII
Upon the coming into force of this treaty economic relations between the contacting parties shall be restored, and with this end in view the contracting parties shall enter into negotiations for the conclusion of a trade agreement.

This treaty of peace shall enter into effect immediately upon being signed, and shall be subject to subsequent ratification.

The exchange of instruments of ratification shall take place within ten days in the city of Moscow.
This treaty has been prepared in two original instruments, in the Finnish and the Swedish languages and in Russian, at Moscow this 12 day of March, 1940.